## Seccond Law Of Thermodynamica Minecraft Beta 1.3 - Beta 1.7.3 Seed

### Seed Code: Seccond Law Of Thermodynamica

This Seed is made of green grass and a lot of trees if you dont go too far.

### Spawn points

**X**: 59 /

**Y**: 67 /

**Z**: 5

### Locations

**X**: -60 / **Y**: 88 / **Z**: 38

I have seen a lot of Seeds, believe me, but I never saw a mountain surface out of stone. Theres always Sand or Dirt or whatnot but usually no stone.

**X**: 145 / **Y**: 69 / **Z**: 95

Some pupkins chillin under a tree, tryin not to get a sunburn.

**X**: 427 / **Y**: 75 / **Z**: -77

A nice surface lavalake.

Nice upload

I think it may be a mis-spelling of:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the tendency that over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical potential equilibrate in an isolated physical system.

cool any good place for a house

I am in desperate need of clay. Please if someone could send me some coords where there are some.

Did you try the coordinates of the last (clay) block just under the preview-picture?

@Wasparoo: If you're playing in 1.6, there's a clay bug where clay only appears on places where x=z.

any dungeons?

Clay:

X: 16

Y: 67

Z: 71

I found two dungeons!

Spider one:

X: -188.32

Y: 60.62

Z: 61.26

Just some coca beans and some wheat, and a few useful things...

There's a zombie dungeon too ;

X: -342.30

Y: 65.62

Z: -19.71

Nothing really special, no apples :(

But coca beans and bread...

On the bright side, there are a few treasures in the collapsed cave here! (:

8/10 no snow good map though

I search sugar cane

Good seed its just that i dont find any sugar

fun swiming in the lavalake realy cool

The first law of thermodynamics provides the basic definition of thermodynamic energy, also called internal energy, associated with all thermodynamic systems, but unknown in mechanics, and states the rule of conservation of energy in nature.

However, the concept of energy in the first law does not account for the observation that natural processes have a preferred direction of progress. For example, spontaneously, heat always flows to regions of lower temperature, never to regions of higher temperature without external work being performed on the system. The first law is completely symmetrical with respect to the initial and final states of an evolving system. The key concept for the explanation of this phenomenon through the second law of thermodynamics is the definition of a new physical property, the entropy.

A change in the entropy (S) of a system is the infinitesimal transfer of heat (Q) to a closed system driving a reversible process, divided by the equilibrium temperature (T) of the system.[1]

dS = frac{delta Q}{T} !

The entropy of an isolated system that is in equilibrium is constant and has reached its maximum value.

Empirical temperature and its scale is usually defined on the principles of thermodynamics equilibrium by the zeroth law of thermodynamics.[2] However, based on the entropy, the second law permits a definition of the absolute, thermodynamic temperature, which has its null point at absolute zero.[3]

The second law of thermodynamics may be expressed in many specific ways,[4] the most prominent classical statements[3] being the statement by Rudolph Clausius (1850), the formulation by Lord Kelvin (1851), and the definition in axiomatic thermodynamics by Constantin Carathéodory (1909). These statements cast the law in general physical terms citing the impossibility of certain processes. They have been shown to be equivalent.

[edit] Clausius statement

German scientist Rudolf Clausius is credited with the first formulation of the second law, now known as the Clausius statement:[4]

No process is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a body of lower temperature to a body of higher temperature.[note 1]

Spontaneously, heat cannot flow from cold regions to hot regions without external work being performed on the system, which is evident from ordinary experience of refrigeration, for example. In a refrigerator, heat flows from cold to hot, but only when forced by an external agent, a compressor.

[edit] Kelvin statement

Lord Kelvin expressed the second law in another form. The Kelvin statement expresses it as follows:[4]

No process is possible in which the sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and its complete conversion into work.

This means it is impossible to extract energy by heat from a high-temperature energy source and then convert all of the energy into work. At least some of the energy must be passed on to heat a low-temperature energy sink. Thus, a heat engine with 100% efficiency is thermodynamically impossible. This also means that it is impossible to build solar panels that generate electricity solely from the infrared band of the electromagnetic spectrum without consideration of the temperature on the other side of the panel (as is the case with conventional solar panels that operate in the visible spectrum).

Note that it is possible to convert heat completely into work, such as the isothermal expansion of ideal gas. However, such a process has an additional result. In the case of the isothermal expansion, the volume of the gas increases and never goes back without outside interference.

[edit] Principle of Carathéodory

Constantin Carathéodory formulated thermodynamics on a purely mathematical axiomatic foundation. His statement of the second law is known as the Principle of Carathéodory, which may be formulated as follows:[5]

In every neighborhood of any state S of an adiabatically isolated system there are states inaccessible from S.[6]

With this formulation he described the concept of adiabatic accessibility for the first time and provided the foundation for a new subfield of classical thermodynamics, often called geometrical thermodynamics.

[edit] Equivalence of the statements

Derive Kelvin Statement from Clausius Statement

Suppose there is an engine violating the Kelvin statement: i.e.,one that drains heat and converts it completely into work in a cyclic fashion without any other result. Now pair it with a reversed Carnot engine as shown by the graph. The net and sole effect of this newly created engine consisting of the two engines mentioned is transferring heat Delta Q=Qleft(frac{1}{eta}-1right) from the cooler reservoir to the hotter one, which violates the Clausius statement. Thus a violation of the Kelvin statement implies a violation of the Clausius statement, i.e. the Clausius statement implies the Kelvin statement. We can prove in a similar manner that the Kelvin statement implies the Clausius statement, and hence the two are equivalent.

[edit] Corollaries

[edit] Perpetual motion of the second kind

Main article: perpetual motion

Prior to the establishment of the Second Law, many people who were interested in inventing a perpetual motion machine had tried to circumvent the restrictions of First Law of Thermodynamics by extracting the massive internal energy of the environment as the power of the machine. Such a machine is called a "perpetual motion machine of the second kind". The second law declared the impossibility of such machines.

[edit] Carnot theorem

Carnot's theorem (1824) is a principle that limits the maximum efficiency for any possible engine. The efficiency solely depends on the temperature difference between the hot and cold thermal reservoirs. Carnot's theorem states:

* All irreversible heat engines between two heat reservoirs are less efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same reservoirs.

* All reversible heat engines between two heat reservoirs are equally efficient with a Carnot engine operating between the same reservoirs.

In his ideal model, the heat of caloric converted into work could be reinstated by reversing the motion of the cycle, a concept subsequently known as thermodynamic reversibility. Carnot however further postulated that some caloric is lost, not being converted to mechanical work. Hence no real heat engine could realise the Carnot cycle's reversibility and was condemned to be less efficient.

Though formulated in terms of caloric (see the obsolete caloric theory), rather than entropy, this was an early insight into the second law.

[edit] Clausius Inequality

The Clausius Theorem (1854) states that in a cyclic process

oint frac{delta Q}{T} leq 0.

The equality holds in the reversible case[7] and the '<' is in the irreversible case. The reversible case is used to introduce the state function entropy. This is because in cyclic processes the variation of a state function is zero.

[edit] Thermodynamic temperature

Main article: Thermodynamic temperature

For an arbitrary heat engine, the efficiency is:

eta = frac {A}{q_H} = frac{q_H-q_C}{q_H} = 1 - frac{q_C}{q_H} qquad (1)

where A is the work done per cycle. Thus the efficiency depends only on qC/qH.

Carnot's theorem states that all reversible engines operating between the same heat reservoirs are equally efficient. Thus, any reversible heat engine operating between temperatures T1 and T2 must have the same efficiency, that is to say, the effiency is the function of temperatures only: frac{q_C}{q_H} = f(T_H,T_C)qquad (2).

In addition, a reversible heat engine operating between temperatures T1 and T3 must have the same efficiency as one consisting of two cycles, one between T1 and another (intermediate) temperature T2, and the second between T2 andT3. This can only be the case if

f(T_1,T_3) = frac{q_3}{q_1} = frac{q_2 q_3} {q_1 q_2} = f(T_1,T_2)f(T_2,T_3).

Now consider the case where T_1 is a fixed reference temperature: the temperature of the triple point of water. Then for any T2 and T3,

f(T_2,T_3) = frac{f(T_1,T_3)}{f(T_1,T_2)} = frac{273.16 cdot f(T_1,T_3)}{273.16 cdot f(T_1,T_2)}.

Therefore if thermodynamic temperature is defined by

T = 273.16 cdot f(T_1,T) ,

then the function f, viewed as a function of thermodynamic temperature, is simply

f(T_2,T_3) = frac{T_3}{T_2},

and the reference temperature T1 will have the value 273.16. (Of course any reference temperature and any positive numerical value could be used—the choice here corresponds to the Kelvin scale.)

[edit] Entropy

Main article: entropy (classical thermodynamics)

According to the Clausius equality, for a reversible process

oint frac{delta Q}{T}=0

That means the line integral int_L frac{delta Q}{T} is path independent.

So we can define a state function S called entropy, which satisfies

dS = frac{delta Q}{T} !

With this we can only obtain the difference of entropy by integrating the above formula. To obtain the absolute value, we need the Third Law of Thermodynamics, which states that S=0 at absolute zero for perfect crystals.

For any irreversible process, since entropy is a state function, we can always connect the initial and terminal status with an imaginary reversible process and integrating on that path to calculate the difference in entropy.

Now reverse the reversible process and combine it with the said irreversible process. Applying Clausius inequality on this loop,

-Delta S+intfrac{delta Q}{T}=ointfrac{delta Q}{T}< 0

Thus,

Delta S ge int frac{delta Q}{T} ,!

where the equality holds if the transformation is reversible.

Notice that if the process is an adiabatic process, then delta Q=0, so Delta Sge 0.

You have been owned.

I wrote a report on this for my physics class.

join my server vivavillage

Holy s*** dude.......NICE!!!! :D